电对现代生活是必不可少的. Because it’s used everyday, it often isn’t treated with the respect it deserves. 每年大约发生350起与电气有关的死亡事故. The following hazards are the most frequent causes of electrical injuries:
Overhead and buried power lines are especially hazardous because they carry extremely high voltage. Fatal electrocution is the main risk, but burns and falls from elevations are also hazards. Using tools and equipment that can contact power lines increases the risk. 可以接触到电源线的设备包括:
- Use non-conductive 木 or fiberglass ladders when working near power lines.
Normal use of electrical equipment can cause wear and tear that results in insulation breaks, 可以终止, 裸露的电线. 没有适当的保护, 可能会发生接地故障, 导致电灼伤, 爆炸, 火, 或死亡.
- 在所有120伏电压上使用接地故障断路器, 单相, 15和20安培的插座, 或有可靠的设备接地导体方案.
- Follow manufacturers’ recommended testing procedures to ensure GFCI is working correctly.
- Use tools and equipment according to the instructions included in their listing, 标签, 或认证.
- 使用前目视检查所有电气设备. 从使用中移除任何有磨损电线的设备, 缺少接地插脚, 工具套管破裂, 等.
柔韧的电线被精细地绞成一股以保持柔韧, so straining a cord can cause the strands of one conductor to loosen from under terminal screws and touch another conductor. Make sure flexible cords are connected to devices and to fittings in ways that prevent tension at joints and terminal screws.
软线可能被门或窗的边缘损坏, 用订书钉和固定物, 由邻近材料的磨损, 或者仅仅是衰老. If the electrical conductors become exposed, there is a danger of shocks, burns, or 火.
Extension cords must be 3-wire type so they may be grounded and to permit grounding of any tools or equipment connected to them.
当电源线接头湿时, electric current can leak to the equipment grounding conductor and to humans who pick up that connector if they provide a path to ground. Leakage can occur not just on the face of the connector, but at any wetted portion. Limit exposure of connectors and tools to excessive moisture by using watertight or sealable connectors.
- 总是在开阔的田野里放风筝和模型飞机, 远离架空电线或电气设备.
- Avoid shocks by pulling the plug, not the cord (wires won’t break inside either.)
那些在院子里或后巷里发现的绿色电器箱是什么? To the Electric Utility, these boxes are known as 焊盘式变压器. Pad mount transformers lower the voltage of the electricity from distribution levels to the 120/240-volt level used in homes. They are located in the Utility-Right-of-Way in underground services areas. 如果你家有的话, contact 乌玛提拉电力合作社 about landscaping and fencing around transformers. 你可以通过 (541) 567-6414. 在变压器安全的时候, follow the safety signs on the transformer and keep curious children away.
- 用纸做风筝吗, 木, 塑料, 尼龙, 或织物, 确保你的风筝上没有金属部件.
- DO NOT climb a power pole or tree to get a kite tangled in overhead power lines.
- DO call 乌玛提拉电力合作社 to take down a kite that is touching a power line.
- DO check wind direction before flying your kite to avoid hazards; keep control of your kite by using a reasonable length of string.
懒惰的, 朦胧的, hot days of summer provide the right atmosphere for sudden thunder and lightning storms. Lightning is a form of static electricity and like other forms of electricity, 闪电寻找通往地面的路径. It will use the best conductor available, including water, a tree, a kite string, or a person.
电总是试图到达地面. 它会选择最短最简单的路径. 金属材料，如铜和铝, 湿的东西, 以及任何有水的东西, 包括人和木头, 电是良导体吗. Tree sap, with its high water content, is an excellent conductor of electricity.
Listed are some safe practices to ensure your safety during electrical storms:
- Stay away from open doors and windows, metal pipes, sinks, and plug-in electrical appliances.
- Do not work on fences, telephone lines, power lines, pipelines, or metal buildings
- 不要使用金属物品，如鱼竿和高尔夫球杆. Golfers wearing metal cleated shoes are particularly good lightning rods.
- Stop tractor work, especially when the tractor is pulling metal equipment, and get off the tractor.
- 如果你要旅行，就呆在车里. 汽车有很好的防雷功能.
- 当没有遮蔽物时，避开该区域最高的物体. 如果附近有孤立的树木就好了, 最好的保护是蹲在空旷处, 与孤立树木的距离是树木高度的两倍.
- 避免山顶, 开放空间, 铁丝栅栏, 金属晾衣绳, 以及任何可能导电的高处物体.
Federated Rural Electric Insurance Exchange sponsors 安全用电, a multi-media public awareness program designed to complement the existing safety-education activities of utilities and educators.
安全用电 uses 电气安全 World to teach people the principles and practices of electrical safety through experiments, 游戏, 和活动. The web site is geared towards a range of interests and reading levels and can be used by students in elementary and middle school.
漫画, 游戏, and parents’ and teachers’ guides for learning electrical safety from the 电气安全 Foundation International (ESFI).
Warmer weather during the spring and summer months coaxes many people outside to participate in activities like swimming, 划船, 和园艺. 秋天和冬天的温度较低, 另一方面, 鼓励更多的人在室内舒适. 以下是ESFI的四个安全季节.
Are you confident that your company’s electrical safety program is up-to-date and comprehensive? The 电气安全 Self-Assessment guides you through a series of questions that will help you assess the effectiveness of your electrical safety program, 并确定可能需要进一步检查的领域. 把它想象成你的电气安全程序的检查清单.
联系 with overhead power lines is the leading cause of electrical fatalities for agricultural workers. This 架空电线安全海报 can be purchased for $1 or can be printed on letter paper size, 或者通过更改打印机设置在较大的纸张上打印. 同时请注意西班牙语版海报的链接.
The 杂散电压导 created by the Iowa State Extension Service outlines the steps farmers, 电工, utilities and their advisors can take to discover and resolve stray voltage concerns on livestock farms. 当农民和公用事业公司能够合作时, 杂散电压问题更有可能得到圆满解决.